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- The World Health Organization identified glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans” in the year 2015, and now glyphosate is the target of many lawsuits from cancer patients who aim to prove that glyphosate exposure led to their cancers.
- Monsanto/Bayer, the maker of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup© weed killer insists that their proprietary chemical mixture is safe, yet reputable, principled, and conscientious juries seem to be ruling otherwise.
- Exposure to glyphosate may be at least partially to blame for rising rates of a wide range of chronic diseases in Westernized societies.
- Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used on conventional crops and, especially, genetically modified (GM) crops.
- Billions of pounds of toxic chemicals are sprayed on crops in the US alone, and glyphosate is the most popular herbicide used worldwide.
- Glyphosate residues are found in abundance in the Western diet, particularly in GM sugar, corn, soy, wheat, and canola and soy oils.
- In addition to cancer, glyphosate is both directly and indirectly responsible for a wide range of health issues, many of which are severe and degenerative.
- Glyphosate is a powerful chelating agent that strips vital nutrients from plants and soil while depositing itself in food crops.
- Glyphosate disrupts the physiological and enzymatic processes plants require for growth and life, causing their destruction.
- Glyphosate, by design, kills nearly every living thing with which it comes into contact. Biotech conglomerates have had to genetically engineer a wide range of crops that are resistant to it.
- Food crops take in glyphosate through their roots, so there is no way to wash it off or make it less harmful.
- Glyphosate can bioaccumulate, meaning levels continually build up within the body.
- Desiccation is a farming practice that involves the spraying of glyphosate on non-GMO crops such as wheat, barley, lentils, and oats to dry them before harvest, making harvest easier and faster.
- The shikimate or shikimic acid pathway is a metabolic route used by bacteria, algae, parasites, fungi, and plants for making the “essential aromatic amino acids” phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.
- This pathway is not found in humans and animals; hence these “essential” amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, must be obtained from the diet.
- Although humans and animals do not have the shikimate pathway, the microbiome bacteria in the gut do, and that is how it leads to such widespread systemic damage in both humans and animals.
- Glyphosate is highly persistent in the environment.
- Glyphosate is killing off bees, butterflies, and other pollinators.
- Glyphosate ravages the human gut microbiome and the immune system.
- Glyphosate is even more toxic when combined with other chemicals.
- Glyphosate shuts down bile flow and bile production.
- If you want to steer clear from glyphosate in your diet, you need to know which foods and additives contain glyphosate and avoid them.
- You can avoid glyphosate by eating organic.
- Consuming fermented foods and adding specific dietary supplements can help counter the effects of glyphosate.
- People with chronic illness should avoid glyphosate as part of their recovery process.
Glyphosate Exposure Is Implicated in Cancer and So Much More
This is the time of year where we welcome in the sunshine and the growing season. And what a spectacular time of year it is! We rejoice in Mother Earth as she shares her abundance of delicious fruits and vegetables, providing us with the seasonal nutrients that our bodies crave and need to thrive. Her bounty brings flowers, lovely plants, and herbs to our gardens and turns our lawns emerald green.
So, chances are you’ve already started your backyard garden. And you may be considering what you will do to get rid of weeds. Is it safe to use those weed-killing pesticides that your local garden center store? If you’ve heard the news lately, you’re likely hearing more and more about toxicity and safety issues associated with pesticides and herbicides.
Glyphosate: “Probably Carcinogenic” or Liable for Damages and Wrongful Death?
Glyphosate, the main ingredient in a popular weed killer, is drawing much attention. Dubbed “probably carcinogenic to humans” by the World Health Organization in the year 2015, glyphosate is now the target of many lawsuits from cancer patients who insist (and rightly so, as you’ll see as you read on) that glyphosate exposure led to their cancers.
In fact, in August of 2018, a jury awarded a terminally ill man $289 million (later reduced to 78 million) in a lawsuit against Monsanto (now Bayer), makers of Roundup© herbicide.1Then, in March of 2019, another jury awarded a man who blamed Roundup© for his cancer more than $80 million in damages.2 Attorneys say these cases could help determine the fate of hundreds of similar lawsuits.
Furthermore, U.S. Right to Know, an organization committed to “pursuing truth and transparency in America’s food system,” share that 11,000 people have filed suit against Monsanto/Bayer, alleging that exposure to Roundup© caused them or their loved ones to manifest non-Hodgkin lymphoma and that Monsanto concealed the risks.
With all this noteworthy attention, Monsanto/Bayer continues to assert that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the widely used Roundup© weed killer, is safe. Yet, reputable, principled, and conscientious juries seem to be ruling otherwise. In light of this, how will you proceed in your next walk through the garden center? Refraining from putting that toxic “easy fix” into your cart and refusing to further the use of glyphosate on your little plot of planetary ground is a fabulous and commendable step in the right direction.
And, if you’re not too overwhelmed at this point, hopefully, you will turn your attention toward avoiding (as much as possible) the glyphosate-laden food you and your family consume, probably unknowingly. You may want further information on glyphosate’s adverse effects on the body and how to avoid it. Read on, there’s more to uncover and more to know about how to keep yourself and your loved ones safe.
Glyphosate’s Impact on Human Health
According to recent research, ongoing exposure to glyphosate may be at least partially to blame for rising rates of a wide range of chronic diseases in Westernized societies. This has dire consequences for virtually every child, woman, and man in developed nations, as this pesticide is widely used on conventional crops and, especially, genetically modified (GM) crops. GM crops are genetically altered to resist even higher levels of toxic herbicides and pesticides without succumbing to the deadly assault. Billions of pounds of toxic chemicals are sprayed on crops in the US alone. Glyphosate is the most popular herbicide used worldwide.3
Toxic glyphosate residues are found in abundance in the Western diet, particularly in GM sugar, corn, soy, wheat, and canola and soy oils. Glyphosate from dietary and other sources could contribute to:4
- Depression and anxiety
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Parkinson’s disease
- ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
- Multiple sclerosis
- Infertility; miscarriages; stillbirths; reproductive problems
- Delayed puberty; decreased sperm production; decreased testosterone production
- Developmental malformations and spontaneous abortion
- Anencephaly (birth defect)
- Cachexia (a side effect of diseases characterized by severe weight loss and muscle wasting)
- Heart disease
- Respiratory illness
- Liver disease
- Celiac disease
- Gluten intolerance
- Leaky gut syndrome
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Glyphosate’s Impact on Nutrients in Plants and Soil
Glyphosate strips vital nutrients from plants and soil while depositing itself in food crops. Due to its potent chelating properties, it was initially used as an agent to clean out (descale) calcium and other mineral deposits in pipes and boilers. It binds metal and mineral ions, and in the case of plants, it binds to trace minerals and nutrients like manganese, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron, and many others. In this way, it disrupts the physiological and enzymatic processes plants require for growth and life, causing their destruction. This is why glyphosate is used as a broad-spectrum weed killer in numerous residential and commercial applications.
That leads to yet another consideration: Plants and food crops get their nutrients from healthy, nutrient-rich soils. When soils are stripped of nutrients and deadened by glyphosate, the food grown in it is nutrient deficient. These foods are far less nourishing than food grown in healthy, microbially-rich soils.
Another grave concern is glyphosate’s increasing presence inside the foods people are eating. It is a problem that’s growing and proving to have disastrous consequences for public health. Glyphosate, by design, kills nearly every living thing with which it comes into contact. Monsanto has had to genetically engineer a wide range of crops that are resistant to it. Soybeans, corn, cotton, sugar beets, canola, and many other crops are genetically engineered to be tolerant of glyphosate-based herbicides. Consequently, these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are sprayed liberally with glyphosate, since they’ve been genetically altered to resist its toxic onslaught.
It is a verified fact that plants directly take in glyphosate through their root systems.5 A study out of Norway looking at “Roundup© Ready” soybeans confirmed the presence of glyphosate inside the beans themselves, and even Monsanto itself admits that some glyphosate remains on and in food crops that are heavily sprayed with it. This means that animals and people are literally eating glyphosate in unknown amounts regularly. Plus, glyphosate can bioaccumulate, meaning levels continually build up within the body. When viewed from this perspective, any amount consumed is harmful.
It’s also practical to speak here briefly about desiccation. Desiccation practices involve the spraying of glyphosate on non-GMO crops such as wheat, barley, lentils, and oats to dry the crop before harvest, making harvest easier and faster. Desiccation may be a significant source of dietary exposure to glyphosate in crops treated with this harvesting practice.6
Glyphosate’s Impact on the Shikimate Pathway
The shikimate or shikimic acid pathway is a metabolic route used by bacteria, algae, parasites, fungi, and plants for making the “essential aromatic amino acids” phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. This pathway is not found in humans and animals; hence these “essential” amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, must be obtained from the diet.
As a potent metal and mineral chelator which binds to minerals and metals, glyphosate has a particular attraction to manganese, drawing it from plants. Without manganese, plants cannot express an enzyme that they need to produce the essential aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). This essential biological function is called the shikimate pathway, and glyphosate disables it. Glyphosate robs the plants of the required amino acids and other vital nutrients and weakens their immune defenses, resulting in the plant’s destruction and eventual death.
Monsanto has staunchly stood by their claim that Roundup© is harmless to animals and humans since humans and animals do not have the biological function known as the shikimate pathway. BUT—and this is a BIG one—the shikimate pathway IS present in the gut bacteria, and that’s the key to understanding how it leads to such widespread systemic damage in both humans and animals.
The impact of the gut microbiome on human health is widely known and becoming better understood every day. Glyphosate causes health problems in both animals and humans through disruption and destruction of the gut bacteria. When the shikimate pathway of the gut microbiome becomes disabled by exposure to glyphosate, they too will die, and the balance of the gut microbiome will be disturbed. The gut microbiota will then have their ability to synthesize vitamins, detoxify xenobiotics (foreign substances or chemicals which the body does not recognize), participate in immune system balancing, and maintain gastrointestinal tract health disrupted.
Amino acids methionine, an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, and glycine are also adversely impacted by glyphosate. Additionally, many other biologically active molecules, including melatonin, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, thyroid hormone, coenzyme Q10, folate, vitamin K, and vitamin E, depend on the shikimate pathway metabolites as precursors.
Glyphosate’s Alarming and Concerning Dangers
The alarming truth is, glyphosate is known to trigger and contribute to a wide range of health issues in humans and animals, both directly and indirectly.
It’s highly persistent in the environment.
U.S. Geological Survey data reports that glyphosate was found in more than 50 percent of soil, water, and sediment samples. 7 Furthermore, glyphosate breaks down into a chemical toxin called AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), which is even more common than glyphosate itself in almost all environmental settings.
It’s killing off the pollinators.
Scientific research verifies that glyphosate compromises the gut flora in honey bees, making them malnourished and vulnerable to infection.8 Furthermore, monarch butterfly populations are declining at a staggering rate because milkweed, a plant exclusively critical to Monarch reproduction and survival, is very susceptible to being killed by glyphosate.9
It’s ravaging the human gut microbiome and the immune system.
Glyphosate is a registered antimicrobial agent that kills both good and bad organisms in the digestive tract indiscriminately. Glyphosate not only destroys protective gut bacteria including Bacillus and Lactobacillus, but it also hampers the growth of new protective gut organisms, leaving the body particularly susceptible to invading pathogens and bowel disorders like leaky gut syndrome.
It’s even more toxic when combined with other chemicals.
Glyphosate is even more toxic in combination with the other chemicals found in Roundup©. Scientists found that Roundup©’s supposedly “inert” ingredients intensify the harmful effect on human cells, even at concentrations much less than those used on farms and lawns.10 Laboratory findings show that this mixture of toxic ingredients causes cell damage, mutations, and death.
It’s known to contribute to or cause many other problems and conditions.
- Glyphosate has been linked to birth defects and malformations11
- Roundup©’s proprietary chemical mixture is even more deadly than glyphosate alone to human liver cells.12
- Glyphosate is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to increase the growth of breast cancer by interfering with the function of estrogen receptors.13
- Numerous studies have shown an association between glyphosate and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.14
- Glyphosate and other types of herbicides were linked to changes in human DNA, including shortening the length of telomeres. Shortened telomeres are associated with decreased lifespan and longevity.15 16
- Children of parents exposed to glyphosate at home or on the job have an elevated occurrence of brain cancer.17
- Studies show that glyphosate induces increased production of inflammatory cytokines.
- Glyphosate is indirectly associated with kidney disease, as it can destroy kidney tissues when it forms complexes with hard water and toxic metals.18
- Glyphosate adversely impacts neurotransmitter production. Glyphosate can affect the creation of the essential amino acid tryptophan directly. Depletion of tryptophan results in decreased serotonin and melatonin production.
- Glyphosate has potent antibiotic activities, especially against beneficial Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut. Furthermore, glyphosate allows for the overgrowth of harmful bacteria such as C. difficile and campylobacter.19
- Glyphosate shifts the gut microbiome population towards endotoxin-producing bacteria. These organisms produce severe diarrhea, hemorrhage, and shock in large amounts. Smaller amounts are associated with altered immune and white blood cell function and decreased resistance to infection.
- Glyphosate reduces the ability of gut microbes to synthesize methionine.20 Methionine is the essential sulfur-containing amino acid necessary to prevent homocystinuria and blood vessel damage. It also protects the liver against fatty degeneration. Methionine deficiency is linked to hepatic fibrosis, upregulation of proinflammatory genes, oxidative damage, cell membrane injury, and decreased detoxification in the liver. Methionine is also necessary for the biosynthesis of the amino acids taurine, carnitine, and cysteine.
- Glyphosate can substitute for the amino acid glycine during protein synthesis, disrupting mineral balance and producing gut imbalances. Glycine substitution leads to mitochondrial stress and oxidative damage.21
- Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a particular class of enzymes that are essential for the detoxification of drugs and environmental chemicals. Glyphosate disrupts the activities of multiple CYP enzymes. Effects of compromised CYP enzymes include impairing:
- Cholesterol regulation and steroid hormone synthesis
- Cell membrane synthesis
- Normal cell metabolic function
- Receptor binding and nuclear penetration
- Vitamin D3 production
- Detoxification of xenobiotics
- Increase in retinoic acid, leading to faulty bile synthesis and impaired fat metabolism.
- Glyphosate shuts down bile flow and bile production. Bile acids are poorly secreted in the presence of glyphosate, and in conjunction with CYP enzyme disturbances can result in high cholesterol levels both in the liver and in the blood. When bile flow is negatively impacted, arsenic levels are affected as well. When arsenic can’t be cleared from the body through the bile, it can accumulate and cause toxicity, potentially leading to kidney failure.
Honestly, I could go on and on here about ways that glyphosate, directly and indirectly, contributes to human, animal, insect, and environmental harm. Countless scientific studies confirm its deadly impact. Instead, let’s move on to learning how to avoid glyphosate in your food.
Glyphosate In Your Food
If you want to steer clear from glyphosate (as much as possible), you have to read and understand labels. There no two ways about it. Food producers do not share any information about the glyphosate content in their products. You need to know what to look for to keep yourself and your loved ones safe from this toxic biohazard. Glyphosate isn’t just on the outside of plants, it is absorbed into plants. Glyphosate contamination inside plants cannot be removed by washing, and it isn’t broken down or made less destructive by cooking or baking.
- Avoid major GMO foods (remember, they’re ALL sprayed with glyphosate) unless they are 100% organic, including soy, soybean oil, and other soy products, corn and corn-derived products, canola oil, and sugar beets (most table sugar comes from sugar beets).
- Many non-organic cereals and grains are harvested with glyphosate desiccation. These include wheat, rice, oats, barley, millet, wild rice, sorghum, and popcorn, and sorghum.
- A wide range of food additives are derived from glyphosate-sprayed crops including high-fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, maltodextrin, fructose, baking powder, natural flavors, cornstarch, caramel color, cellulose, citric acid, dextrose, dextrin, inositol, malt, maltodextrin, monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium erythorbate, semolina, sorbitol, xylitol, starch, vanilla extract, and xanthan gum.
- Corn-based ingredients are found in nonfood items as diverse as toothpaste, shampoo, toothpaste, vitamins, IV solutions, cosmetics, crayons, dishwashing liquid, clothing, paint, plastics, and pet foods.
- Avoid non-organic prepared foods such as bread, pastries, granola bars, crackers, muffins, and cookies.
- Avoid non-organic sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, corn sugar, and chewing gum.
- Avoid non-organic fruits and vegetables including kale, papaya, summer squash, zucchini, potatoes, apples, oranges, beans, lentils, peas, peppermint, peas, spearmint, instant tea, and many spices. Check out the fruits and vegetables on the Dirty Dozen list.
- Glyphosate-laden foods are fed to animals including alfalfa, corn, hay, fodder, and soy. These can produce glyphosate residues in meats, poultry, dairy, and eggs.
- Common prepared foods that have glyphosate in them include corn chips, corn tortillas, potato chips, multigrain chips, soy sauce, soy milk, almond milk, rice milk, corn tortillas, olive oil (is often diluted with other GMO oils), ketchup, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and almost all canned fish in oil.
- Avoid some non-organic nuts, such as sunflower seeds and almonds, may also contain glyphosate.
Be on the lookout for foods that are only labeled organic as they may legally contain up to 5% non-organic ingredients. Instead, purchase prepared foods that are labeled 100% organic.
Specific product labels can help you avoid glyphosate. Look for:
Non-GMO Project Verified
This label tells you that a product doesn’t contain GMOs, but won’t tell you whether the product is glyphosate-free.
Steer clear of glyphosate-sprayed food by seeking out products that bear the USDA Organic label. Food producers cannot knowingly spray foods with synthetic chemical pesticides such as glyphosate if they are compliant with organic certification. Unfortunately, glyphosate use is so widespread that it may contaminate food crops that aren’t directly sprayed, including organic crops.
Glyphosate Residue-Free Certification
The “Glyphosate Residue-Free” label, is new and offers more transparency and provides extra assurance against glyphosate exposure.
Glyphosate: How to Avoid the Dangers
I realize the list above may have you wondering: Well, then what can I do to avoid glyphosate, which is seemingly everywhere? Here are some recommendations to protect you and your loved ones from dangerous glyphosate:
Research has shown that eating a mainly organic diet for only one week reduced pesticide exposure in the diet by 90%.22
Consume more fermented foods.
Glyphosate has known antibiotic effects. Fermented foods can help to protect and balance the gut microbiome, and can work to counter the microbiome disruption caused by glyphosate. Fermented foods include:
- Apple cider vinegar
- Fermented vegetables
Choose organic, if possible, since the ingredients that make these fermented foods can also be vulnerable to glyphosate accumulation.
Eat more foods with sulfur.
Some of the most common sulfur-containing foods are organic eggs, garlic, and onions. Glyphosate can deplete your body of sulfur and also has damaging effects on sulfate pathways. Sulfur is also vital for your body’s detoxification process.
Add dietary supplements.
Glyphosate is a strong chelator of minerals. It has an affinity for manganese, zinc, magnesium, calcium, and other trace minerals. Glyphosate also depletes vitamin D3 and amino acids so you may need to supplement with these. One supplement, in particular, helps open bile flow, which pushes toxins, including glyphosate, out of the body. It’s called TUDCA, and it should be on a supplement list for anyone who needs support opening the drainage flow in the liver/bile duct pathway. Another way to open the vital liver/bile duct drainage pathway is through coffee enemas. You can find more information about this in my Ultimate Coffee Enema Program.
If you keep all of the above information in mind, you should be able to avoid the majority of glyphosate dangers in your daily diet. It may take some thought and commitment to keep glyphosate consumption low, but it’s well worth the effort to preserve health for you and your family.
People with chronic illness can’t afford to have glyphosate complicating their problems further, and ridding your body of the nasty stuff can go a long way toward correcting some of the issues that plague your system. If you need help getting started, my At-Home Program provides people with essential health-promoting tips and takeaways.
- Romo, V. “Jury Awards Terminally Ill Man $289 Million In Lawsuit Against Monsanto.” npr.org, 10 Aug 2018. Web
- Thanawala, S. “Man Awarded $80 Million in Lawsuit Against Monsanto Claiming Roundup Causes Cancer.” chicagotribune.com, 27 Mar 2019. Web
- Samsel, A and Seneff, S. “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases.” Entropy, vol. 15, no. 4, 15 Jan 2013. Web
- Samsel, A and Seneff, S. “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases.” Entropy, vol. 15, no. 4, 15 Jan 2013. Web
- Bohn, T et al. “Compositional Differences in Soybeans on the Market: Glyphosate Accumulates in Roundup Ready GM Soybeans.” Food Chemistry, 18 Dec 2013. Web
- Staff. “Known Health Concerns About Glyphosate, the Main Ingredient in Roundup.” cornucopia.org, 23 Jan 2019. Web
- Staff. “Common Weed Killer is Widespread in the Environment.” U.S. Geological Survey, 23 April 2014. Web
- Motta EVS et al. “Glyphosate Perturbs the Gut Microbiota of Honey Bees.” PNAS, vol. 115, no. 41, 9 Oct 2018. Web
- Renda, M. “Study Blames Roundup for Monarch Butterfly Deaths.” courthousenews.com, Courthouse News Service, 17 May 2017 Web
- Gammon, C. “Weed-Whacking Herbicide Proves Deadly to Human Cells.” Scientific American, 23 Jun 2009. Web
- Paganelli, A et al. “Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Produce Teratogenic Effects on Vertebrates by Impairing Retinoic Acid Signaling.” Chem. Res. Toxicol., vol. 23, no. 10, 9 Aug 2010. Web
- Gasnire, C et al. “Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Are Toxic and Endocrine Disruptors in Human Cell Lines.” vol. 262, no. 3, 21 Aug 2009. Web
- Thongprakaisang, S et al. “Glyphosate Induces Human Breast Cancer Cells Growth via Estrogen Receptors.” Food Chem Toxicol., vol. 59, Sep 2013. Web
- Gui, YX et al. “Glyphosate Induces Humaglyphosate Induced Cell Death Through Apoptotic and Autophagic Mechanisms.” Neurotoxicol Teratol., vol. 32, no. 3, May-Jun 2012. Web
- Koller, VJ et al. “Cytotoxic and DNA-Damaging Properties of Glyphosate and Roundup in Human-Derived Buccal Epithelial Cells.” Arch Toxicol., vol. 86, no. 5, May 2012. Web
- Hou, Lifang et al. “Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening Among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 121, no. 8, Aug 2013. Web
- Shim, Youn K et al. “Parental exposure to pesticides and childhood brain cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study.” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 117, no. 6, Jun 2009. Web
- Jayasumana, Channa et al. “Glyphosate, Hard Water and
Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka?.” International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 11, no. 2, 20 Feb 2014. Web
- Shaw, W and Pratt, M. “The Importance of Testing for Glyphosate: The World’s Most Widely Used Herbicide.” Townsend Letter, 23 Jan 2017. Web
- Samsel, A and Seneff, S. “Glyphosate, Pathways to Modern Diseases III: Manganese, Neurological Diseases, and Associated Pathologies.” Surgical neurology international, vol. 6, no. 45, 24 Mar 2015. Web
- Morley, WA et al. “Does Glyphosate Acting as a Glycine Analogue Contribute To ALS?” Bioinfo Proteom Img Anal, vol 2, no. 2, 21 Nov 2016. Web
- Staff. Going Organic for One Week Cuts Pesticide Exposure Study.” RMIT University, 29 April 2014. Web